Hereditary Cancer Syndromes

Cancer is, unfortunately, a common disease. In fact, 1 in 3 people are diagnosed with cancer in their life time. Cancer is caused by DNA damage (i.e., mutations) in genes that regulate cell growth and division. The majority of gene mutations that cause cancer are due to diet, lifestyle and exposures (radiation, cigarette smoke, etc),  while a small portion of gene mutations are inherited. Regardless, all cancers are due to mutations (changes) in a person's genes that make their genes not properly function.

 5-10% of all cancers are thought to be due to inherited gene mutations and are called hereditary cancer. Individuals who have a hereditary cancer predisposition are born with a gene mutation that either their mother or father passed on to them. They are at an increased risk to develop certain types of cancer (depending on which gene has the mutation) over their life time. Below is a list of genes that are known to increase a person's risk for cancer over their life time.

ATM

APC

BAP1

BARD1

BMPR1A

BRCA1

BRCA2

BRIP1

CDH1

CDKN2A p16

CDKNA2 p14

CDK4

CHEK2

EPCAM

FH

FLCN

GREM1

MAX

MEN1

MET

MITF

MLH1

MSH2

MSH6

MRE11A

MUYTH

NBN

PALB2

POLD1

POLE

PMS2

PTEN 

RAD50

RAD51C

RAD51D

RET

SDHA

SDHAF2

SDHB

SDHC

SDHD

SMAD4

SMARCA3

STK11

TMEM127

TP53

TSC1

TSC2

VHL